The planar fabrication process which combines lithography with additive and subtractive materials processing helped to revolutionized electronic manufacturing industry. Through planar fabrication miniaturization in production of smaller electronic components was realized resulting in development of lithography.
The direct-write electron beam lithography is a patterning technique which has been evolving over the last 40 years. For many years it has been possible to use electrons to pattern lines with narrow widths and recent advancements in resist materials, electron sources, and system integration have fueled the further improvement in its capabilities. High-sensitivity resists provide substantial increases in the throughput without sacrificing resolution. Thermal field-emission sources improve the stability and reduce the minimum attainable spot size. Read more